Throughout 2015 the Year of literature was praised and judged for variety, including completely not related to it. He was blamed for the death of the writers Valentin Rasputin and Yuri Mamleeva, although it is unclear how human life can be included in the state program. Heated discussion of the awarding of the Nobel prize to Svetlana Aleksievich, although it is difficult to assume that the Nobel Committee was looking into the Russian Year of literature when they made their choice in favor of Russian-language writer from Minsk. This year, the festival of the “books of Russia” on red square is the only software event of the Year of literature, whose triumph is recognized all opponents. And, finally, the Russian government decree of 6 February 2016 has transformed the Committee, which was created for holding the year of literature, Committee on support of literature, publishing and reading in the country in 2016-2018. “Ribbon.ru” versed in the achievements and failures of the year of literature.
Literary map of Russia
There is a steady judgement: the literary life is lived in Moscow and St. Petersburg, and as for regions, there all is not so optimistic. And, on the one hand, the thesis is correct. Because the largest publishers are located in these two cities. But a closer look at literary festivals, festivals and meetings that were held in the regions in 2015, shows that the conventional wisdom should be modified.
“Yekaterinburg, Kazan and Novosibirsk are obvious leaders in the literary events, it is well known, — says Mikhail Wiesel, editor in chief of portal Gadoterate.of the Russian Federation. — Pleased Voronezh, which again is not news — everyone who writes about culture, knows that in Voronezh there was an incredible breakthrough not only in the field of literature. Stood out in Nizhni Novgorod, where local authorities and enthusiasts coincided in his literary intentions. Can’t be called Ulyanovsk and Irkutsk. The last had a wonderful event, unexpected and optional in the sense that it was conducted not by the authorities. There we read “Farewell to the Mothers” Valentin Rasputin. And this reading has dramatically coincided with the death of the writer. Was that so irkucchino said goodbye to the fellow countryman”.
However, it is not always good. “In the regions, where local activists have found a common language with the authorities, the Year of literature became really significant and important, explains Boris Kupriyanov, co-founder of the bookstore “Falanster” and the member of the expert Council of the International fair of intellectual literature Non/fiction. — Kazan, Perm, Voronezh, Vladivostok, Krasnoyarsk, Penza, Makhachkala there were events at a high level with the support of local and regional authorities. Where this did not happen, the events were formal, having nothing to do with the promotion of literature. For example, the festival in St. Michael the Pskov region is unclear who was conceived and who was to be his audience.”
“Regional portrait of the life takes place on the same scenario for years: where there are bright charismatic leaders, there is an interesting portrait of the event. Where these leaders not, nothing happens. Why I think this is wrong? We understand that the regions — a special place and the experience of the capital or other countries must be fully utilized. But the roommate experience can and should. And that would be a direct fact for the year of literature: to take the experience of the regions, summarize, formalize, and to give a little less-active regions ready guidelines with the words: here is a look — the neighbors turned out. Unfortunately, this part of the song in any of the regions is not” — sums up the literary figure and member of the expert Council of Non/fiction fair , Alexander Gavrilov.
Something to hide, many events that the Year of literature has reported on the results, were invented long before him, and in 2015 was held not for the first time (hopefully, not last). Some experts, such an approach seemed unworthy. Others saw the function of the year of literature not only to initiate some new formats, but also support and draw attention to the existing ones.
“In my opinion, turnover is more important than the events that was specially made for the Year of literature, — says Alexey Varlamov, writer, member of the jury of the contest “the Most reading region”. — And the more routine, which once started and will continue no matter what — the better. And the Year of literature aims to support and give new impetus to already existing forms. For me such an important place on the map of Russia is Irkutsk. In a city that means so much to Russian literature is and Vampilov, and Rasputin, and Leonid Borodin, almost for ten years a festival called “This summer in Irkutsk”. It takes place in Irkutsk drama theatre. They invite writers, critics, poets and literary critics from different cities of Russia and arrange for each evening. The man goes on stage, the auditorium is full even though it is summer. And he’s one-on-one with the public says something, responds to questions, entering into discussions. This is an incredibly responsible and zarahome. The second time I participate. Of course, there is an important role played by Valentin Rasputin, who stood at the origins of this festival, participated when he was alive. People are used to, wait for this holiday.
In addition to Irkutsk, I can call the Altai, the Joints, where for the past dozen years pass Shukshin holidays, organize meetings, everything is lively, interesting. As Vasily Kravchuk was a man of the Renaissance warehouse, theatre, literature and film there and the film festival is carried out. And all this causes great interest.
Or Platonov festival in Voronezh. For Voronezh, Platonov is the most important figure, his hometown, the city of his youth, and in Voronezh it is well understood. Directs all this the Governor. Overall, the role of the governors in all these events is very important. The soul of the festival is the main Director of the Voronezh chamber theater Mikhail Bychkov, so the festival has a literary and theatrical accent. Come the leading theatre groups, plays, performances”.
International Platonov Festival
Photo: Evgenia Gorokhova / International Platonov Festival
Another curious event mentions Michael Wiesel: “Our correspondent in Yaroslavl region has told to us about “Another visit”. In the Rybinsk district of the Yaroslavl region there is a village of Mikhailovskoye. The locals thought, what could be better? And made a feast “Casual visit”. It has been held for several years by the efforts of local enthusiast — librarian. But thanks to the Year of literature it got loud sound, a local event got the status of precedent. The year of literature — a kind of driver, the catalyst existing events and processes.”
In Moscow the Year of literature, too, was uneven. On the one hand, in June on the red square with great success held a book festival “books of Russia” — no doubt, more importantly, what will be remembered the Year of literature. It is said that the Deputy head of Rospechat Vladimir Grigoriev been dreaming about this festival for over ten years. And it’s not even the scale of the festival, although it is impressive: 23 thousand square meters, seven themed interactive venues, 400 events, 200 thousands of visitors, sold more than 500 thousand books. Drew himself human message. “Already this one event enough this year was the Year of literature, — admits Boris Kupriyanov. The event is Grand and very important. It is no coincidence that all of the opponents reacted to it positively — it was a triumph of the book humanization and the red square. Books are better than tanks”.
Were held in Moscow and other interesting bookish events: the festival “Bulgakov reader”, for example, held tournaments “Poets in the city” and “Writers in the city.” Writers and actors were walking around the capital and recited passages from reading texts of monuments of Russian classics.
Although it was repeatedly noted that Moscow as an independent region boasts the Year of literature, was especially there is nothing. “One of the capital city spent the Year of literature less money on libraries than in the Year of culture. Even the money that had not been used, — is annoyed Boris Kupriyanov. — The year of literature showed that there is no interested community. At the end of last year one of our libraries held a fantastic event made together with Book Union and publishing houses AST and “Eksmo” literary train, a literary map of the Moscow metro. Really interesting event, which was perceived by the readers, the audience and the townspeople with delight. It was one of the most important events of the year of literature in Moscow. Officials didn’t react. These things really surprised me, and I don’t know what can explain this”.
Photo: Ramil Sitdikov / RIA Novosti
The train “Reading Moscow”, issued in library style, started to run on the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya line of the Moscow subway.
The closing of bookstores
Resonance with a minus sign, and began closing in 2015, several dozen bookshops, including those relating to the network “Moscow house of books”.
“In Moscow the Year of literature was closed on 13 bookstores owned by the town. I’m talking about the stores “Moscow house of books”, which is on balance of the Moscow government, says the co-founder of bookshop “Falanster” Boris Kupriyanov. — Including the oldest in the city bookstore “Subscriptions” at the Kuznetsk bridge. Wait at least a few months to a year ended. The whole number is 36 bookstores became less in the Year of literature. On the one hand, is connected with the strange story of the “Moscow house of books” and with the introduction of the sales tax. He provoked the closure of small and second-hand stores that cannot afford to pay this tax. For example, closed shop in Kamergersky lane “Medical book”, the oldest, 1936″.
“This, of course, a blow for small bookstores. And not only on the book — all the small outlets, — said General Director of the trading house books “Moscow” by Marina Kamenev. — Close bookstores is bad from any point of view. These shops have a tradition, it’s not new, and sacred place. It is always very painful. Whether it was something to do to bring them out of the category of unprofitable? In my opinion, you can. Why did not work with MDK? I have no idea. This is probably a question of management. Each case should be considered separately”.
“Moscow is the most nowcompletely bookstores city on the continent. As a result further reduce the number of humanitarian space shrinks, says Alexander Gavrilov. — Entered the Moscow government last year, the trade tax substantially exceeds the amount of profit small bookstores. Makes no sense to sell books in this city. For comparison, in St. Petersburg the situation with bookshops several times better. Don’t spend optimization through the creation of a holding company with poor management and then to close some stores”.
Now all the teachers of the law hope that the Ministry would amend the law and trading fee with bookstores will be removed.
In Russia bookshops are also difficult: in the Central Federal district (excluding Moscow) one book accounted for 93 thousand inhabitants. In the Caucasus 175 thousand of potential buyers at one store.
Library the Year of literature
It was difficult this year and with libraries. And not only in Moscow but also throughout Russia.
Library. F. M. Dostoyevsky — the first library, updated on the project by Boris Kupriyanov and the architectural Bureau Svesmi
Photo: official group “Library. F. M. Dostoevsky” Vkontakte
“I often travel to Russia, love to do it, — says Alexey Varlamov. — Most of my trips last year were on-line libraries, and I can say that those who work in libraries, — Holy people, real enthusiasts, though facing enormous difficulties. You have to understand that literary work today is not even the fact that’s what writers do. Writers will still, and they do neither help nor hinder. Much more important work with the reader that the books reached the public, to discuss, debate, lived to the environment, without which literature is inconceivable and meaningless. And it is growing largely at the expense of libraries. And I saw it in the most different regions of Russia”.
So sad that funding for libraries this year was significantly reduced. “With many regions concluded an agreement by which how much the library receives from the Federal budget, the same her “dosyam” local budget. And reducing library funding by the Federal government in most regions resulted in a reduction in regional funding,” explains Alexander Gavrilov.
A real tragedy, which coincided chronologically with the Year of literature, was the fire at the Institute in January 2015.
Says Alexander Gavrilov: “the Library sector is in a difficult position. On the one hand, the librarians without need of state support were able to achieve outstanding results in the acquisition, work with the reader and so on. On the other hand, Directors of libraries was unrealistic challenge for survival of libraries in the context of reduced funding, salaries, necessary to convert the fire suppression systems. The fire in INION connected with the Year of literature that was announced the same management, which has cut the budget of libraries and brought them to a condition in which serious Director, a serious library was forced to choose him to build a new fire suppression system in the library, or to pay employees and to purchase new books. The tragedy in the Institute is a reflection not of the year of literature, and much more long-term problems”.
Photo By Petr Kassin / Kommersant
The fire in the library of the Institute of scientific information on social Sciences (INION). The fire area was 2 thousand square meters, collapsed roof on the area about 1 thousand square meters and part of the external wall of the building.
The capital’s literary calendar
The year of literature changed the habitual course of life book. No more March fair on VDNH “books of Russia”, and June’s Moscow international open book festival, which for many years were held in the June long weekend in the courtyard of the Central house of artists on Krymsky Val. Instead, since last year on red square is book festival “books of Russia”. This year it will be held in early June and will coincide with the birthday of Pushkin — June 6.
If the spring fair not sorry at all — it has long been a formal and very few people need the book festival in the CHA was something of a bookish intellectual villas in the city. With his constant audience. And it’s not those people who will easily be replaced by a cozy patio CHA to the expanse of the main square of the country. It will be sorely missed.
September Moscow international book fair at VDNH was still there, but last year it began to make a new team. Nikolay Ovsyannikov, who served as Director General of the international exhibitions-fairs for about 20 years and fired after a scandal (he was convicted by a Federal Agency in the illegal disposal of state property), has replaced Sergei Kaikin. However, the first experience of the new leadership by many experts was not considered successful.
Photo: Kristina Kormilitsyna / Kommersant
Moscow international book fair 2015 was held in pavilion 75 VDNH.
“My birthday gave a catalogue of the first Moscow international book exhibition-fair in 1977 — says Boris Kupriyanov. — Publishers that are out there, it is clear that the world is a big international fair. Since 1977, much water has flowed. But the people who created it, conceived it as a Grand international event. The organizers of the fair in 2015 was doing it not as an international event. There was logic big regional fairs. Provincial. Including by genre. Here soon 1 of September, so much space must be reserved for children and textbooks, for example. So not done international fair. In my opinion, the main error was not in the organization, and the principles and logic. The new team is doing a book event, but does not understand its status, value, meaning. It’s one thing to do a festival, even very good, in the provincial city, provincial town, district — another thing Moscow international book fair, which is inscribed in all international calendars. As fair in Frankfurt, in Leipzig, as the Paris book salon.
By the way, the St. Petersburg book salon, which was made by the same people, and the September fair, in 2015 was significantly better than in 2014. He moved into the city and became major urban event, very interesting, prominent and bright”.
“The collective stand of Iran and Serbia (honorary guests of the fair — approx. “The tape.ru”) — were not without interest, — said Alexander Gavrilov. — Iranian was curious poetic program. But to get it somehow even on the stand was not easy. And even in the city. I am absolutely sure that the majority of those who went to the fair, had no idea that there is a large and interesting stands for international engagement. However, we need to see what will happen next year”.
Readings: Tolstoy and Chekhov
What is new — well forgotten old once again proved the popularity of the marathon reading, which began before the Year of literature, and in 2015 were successfully continued. In September during the day continued joint action of Mat’s Google “Chekhov’s alive”: 700 people in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Taganrog, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, London, new York, Hong Kong and other 20 cities read excerpts of 50 short stories and plays classic. Among the readers were Oleg Tabakov, Inna Churikova, Konstantin Khabenskiy and others. The broadcasts could be viewed on a special website and on YouTube. And at the end of the year on TV channels and radio stations VGTRK four days was a marathon of “War and peace. Read the novel”. 60 hours of absolutely different people — actors, journalists, politicians, athletes, scientists, students — read aloud Tolstoy’s novel.
Photo: Dmitry Astakhov / RIA Novosti
December 11, 2015. The Chairman of the government of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev takes part in the project of the VGTRK “War and peace. Read the novel” in residence “Gorki”.
“Read “War and peace” continues the project КаренинаLive, made by the same Tolstoy Museum the previous year, — reminds Alexander Gavrilov. — For my taste, and such events should be the content of the year of literature. A joint reading with representatives of different social groups, which could have drawn attention to the fact that we all, regardless of our political views and beliefs, there are some common literary heritage. These projects unite us. The idea of these marathons, reading, first, seems to me very reasonable, secondly, fit in international practice: a marathon reading of Cervantes in Spanish, for example, or Joyce at fresh veggies day. But furthermore, it harks back to family reading. That’s about and read these books when they came out, and even later.”
The difficulty with the availability of books can be solved with the help of e-book publishing and book distribution. In this direction, steps have been taken.
In 2013, we adopted anti-piracy law, which provides penalties for unlicensed use of films and TV series. In spring 2015 the law was amended: now for the content of their sites had to answer to those who put music, literature and software. There is a precedent: library Flibusta publishing house “Eksmo” demanded to limit access to books by ray Bradbury. On November 9, the Moscow city court decided life lock website RuTracker. The occasion was the distribution of pirated books Darya Dontsova and Alexander Gromov.
“If we look at the experience of countries that retained its human dimension, we find that in some public funding of libraries is, for example, a significant part of knigoexport. As in Sweden, says Alexander Gavrilov. Solutions that would satisfy rights holders are not allowed to make profit and the pirates would open the texts to the readers, gained quite a lot. But in Russia was made very simple and inefficient: by industrial players, which have proven to be rather consistent fighters against deep reading (it is no coincidence that the lawsuit was filed by the anecdotal list of authors consisting of Dontsova and Gromov). According to these authors, the publishers could show large revenue, and to prove to the court, tangible losses of profit. Thus, the question in this case is not about literature and culture, but about commercial texts. And I think that is fundamentally wrong. Especially in the Year of literature, when in the first place supposed to be the interest of literature”.
That wide reading and public discussion — priorities of the year of literature, understood in the Ministry of culture. The Department Vladimir Medina spent in crisis 2015 a lot of funds for National digital library (for the last three years, the NEB has “eaten” about 750 million rubles). The holdings of the largest book depositories are digitized, and access to them are getting readers from all over the country. This year on the basis of this project was to create a single electronic library of relevant literature. A pilot version of the program worth 3.8 million rubles will test “Foreigner” and about 20 of the capital’s libraries. To start decided to implement a 100 thousand books a year. All of them will be paid by the state.
Digitization of library collections will continue in 2016 and beyond National digital library. So, the library of the Institute (not included in the submission to the Ministry of culture — approx. “The tape.ru”), have lost millions of units of storage during a fire in January of 2015, 2016 awarded a grant of $ 98 million rubles. Management of the library, at the expense of state aid to the Institute will significantly increase the pace of digitization and closer to the indicator in 1,5-2 million pages per year.
The most-read country in the world
In accordance with the presidential decree organizing the preparation and holding of the year of literature was in charge of the Federal Agency for press and mass communications. In some areas support was provided by the Ministry of education and the Ministry of culture.
“Hundreds of thousands of professionals and enthusiasts involved in the past year in organizing and conducting thousands of literary events in all 85 subjects of the Russian Federation. It was the first experience of implementation of similar large-scale public projects, and he was successful. In society and especially in the regions understanding of the value of books and reading, laid down the General framework for improving the situation. However, to solve all the problems of literature, promotion of the Russian language and the promotion of reading, in such a short time is simply unrealistic. And the government supported our idea to convert the organizing Committee of the year of literature in the Committee on support of literature, publishing and reading, which will continue to address these issues. One of them is the support of national literatures and translation of the best works created in the languages of the peoples of Russia. These issues are going to do in 2016 and beyond”, — commented on the results of the year of literature “Tape.ru” Deputy head of the Federal Agency for press and mass communications Vladimir Grigoriev.
And there would be worth to pay attention to “support to national literatures”. In recent years, all the talk about reading in Russia are held under zaplachu “we were the most reading country in the world, but not now”. “When I talked to told me about “the most reading country”, I got to see what he had in mind, — says Alexander Gavrilov. — It turned out that in the speech, Brezhnev said at the regular party Congress, it was reported that, since the Soviet Union published more than anything in the world of magazines in national languages, the USSR was the most reading country in the world. No relation to the time spent on reading books, it didn’t”.
In updated the Committee on support of literature, publishing and reading became the head of Federal Agency on Affairs of nationalities Igor Barinov. His presence meets the goal of restoring and establishing a systematic process of translation of works by authors writing in the languages of the peoples of Russia, on Russian language. If everything goes well, then Russia will inevitably become the most reading country in the world. Almost in the sense which put in this formula Brezhnev